Fusul cu zurgălăi, obiectul popular românesc unic în lume 1
fusul
Social Știință și Tehnologie

Fusul cu zurgălăi, obiectul popular românesc unic în lume

Fusul este o relicvă a industriei casnice textile tradiţionale româneşti. Un obiect simplu, care, la un moment dat, a cunoscut consacrarea internaţională, printr-o variantă maramureşeană excepţională: fusul cu zurgălăi. Este vorba despre un obiect realizat din bucăţi de lemn sculptate, care se asamblează fără accesorii şi care, odată montat, nu mai poate fi desfăcut! O ciudăţenie a artei populare româneşti care a rămas fără explicaţie până azi.

Fusul cu zurgălăi, obiectul popular românesc unic în lume 2

Fusul a ieşit din anonimat în momentul în care priscelul (rotiţa de la bază) a împrumutat tehnica rosturilor, utilizată iniţial ca soluţie constructivă de îmbinare a bucăţilor de lemn fără accesorii (cuie) de lemn sau metal. Astfel de elemente arhitectonice regăsim şi în construcţia bisericilor de lemn din Maramureş. Îmbinarea de piese sculptate de la baza fusului maramureşean are în mijloc un spaţiu gol în care meşterul popular bagă câteva pietricele; la fiecare mişcare, aceste pietricele produc sunete de zurgălăi. Interesant este că această construcţie, odată îmbinată, nu mai poate fi desfăcută şi sună la orice mişcare până când fusul se rupe.

Un artist plastic l-a făcut celebru la nivel internaţional

Artistul plastic Mihai Olos (1940-2015) a valorificat din plin ingenioasa îmbinare a fusului cu zurgălăi în operele sale, cunoscute şi recunoscute în spaţiul cultural european. De fapt, consacrarea internaţională a lui Olos a constituit-o chiar preluarea, într-o dimensiune filosofică şi spirituală, a celebrului fus maramureşean cu zurgălăi. Pornind de la modulele inspirate din arta populară, artistul a proiectat, la un moment dat, un veritabil oraş universal, numit semnificativ “Olospolis”, în care arhitectura rosturilor căpăta valenţe filosofice.

Fusul cu zurgălăi, obiectul popular românesc unic în lume 3

Element decorativ pe un hotel

În anii ’80, graţie notorietăţii de care se bucura deja obiectul popular, arhitecţii care au proiectat complexul hotelier “Mara” din Baia Mare au găsit de cuviinţă să-l împrumute ca element decorativ, confecţionând un “fus cu zdrăngănele” uriaş, amplasat la partea superioară a faţadei, precum o turlă de biserică. Acesta a devenit o emblemă a municipiului reşedinţă de judeţ.

Imită matricea de tetrahedron stelat 64

Fusul cu zurgălăi, obiectul popular românesc unic în lume 4

Dan Ioan Bogdan consideră că acest obiect sculptat imită matricea de tetrahedron stelat 64, care nu este altceva decât Floarea Vieţii. “Moleculele ADNului nostru, corneea, fulgii de zăpadă, conurile de pin, petalele florilor, cristalele diamantului, ramificaţiile copacilor, soarele, stelele, aerul pe care îl respirăm şi toate formele de viaţă, aşa cum le cunoaştem, emerg din coduri geometrice atemporale, geometria sacră”, susţine lectorul universitar de la Universitatea de Vest Vasile Goldiş din Arad şi omul care studiază de decenii acest obiect ciudat al industriei casnice textile tradiţionale româneşti. Tocmai într-o asemenea geometrie sacră se înscrie, în opinia lui Dan Ioan Bogdan, şi fusul cu zurgălăi.

Fusul cu zurgălăi, obiectul popular românesc unic în lume 5

Ar putea fi «seiful ştiinţific al cunoaşterii»

În România au mai rămas doar câţiva meşteri populari care ştiu taina îmbinării acestrui obiect ciudat. “Este uluitor cu câtă uşurinţă ciopleşte meşterul bucăţile de lemn în timp ce vorbeşte cu tine, apoi le îmbină la fel de firesc, ca şi când ar fi ceva absolut normal. Orice om de ştiinţă ar descoperi, la un studiu profund, corespondenţe nebănuite: matematice, fizice, astronomice, chimice, biologice. Minţile luminate ar putea să descopere întregul univers informaţional ascuns în acest obiect, pe care îl construieşte mimetic meşterul maramureşean”, spune Dan Ioan Bogdan.

 

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